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Trading and Investment Terms


130-30 Strategy

This strategy is often used to improve returns on portfolio. It uses financial leverage by shorting poor performing stocks and purchasing shares that are expected to have high returns. A 130-30 ratio implies shorting stocks up to 30% of the portfo ...

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52-Week High/Low

A 52-week high/low shows the highest and the lowest price at which a security has traded during the preceding year.

It is used as a technical indicator by traders and investors who consider the 52-week high/low as an important aspect in de ...

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52-Week Range

Technical analysts compare a stock's current trading price to its 52-week range to get a broad sense of how the stock is doing, as well as how much the stock's price has fluctuated. If the stock price moves above its 52-week high, it is us ...

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90/10 Strategy

For conservative investors, an investing strategy that involves deploying 90% of one's investment capital in interest-bearing instruments that have a lower degree of risk, and the balance 10% in high-risk investments. The 10% investment in hig ...

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Abandoned Baby

This is one of the very rare candlestick patterns for top or bottom reversal signal. It is same as Western island top or bottom in which the island session is also a doji. It is comprised of a doji star that gaps away (also the shadows) from the p ...

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Elliott Wave corrective wave for a three-wave countertrend price movement. Wave A is the first price wave against the trend of the market. Wave B is a corrective wave to wave A. Wave C is the final price move to complete the countertrend price mov ...

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The process where excess supply of a stock is absorbed by increasing demand from buyers. It is considered that the smart money buys the stocks during this phase. Public interest in the security is low during this phase. Prices usually rise afterwa ...

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Advance Block

In Japanese candlestick charting a variation of the three white soldiers in which the last two soldiers (i.e. candles with white real bodies) display weakening upside momentum. This weakness could be in the form of tall upper shadows or progressiv ...

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Some technicians find ADX to be one of the most powerful and reliable technical indicators. The indicator gives a basic buy signal when +DI (green) cross above ?DI (red), and the reverse for a sell. The signal is that much more potent if the ADX l ...

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Algorithmic trading

Algorithmic trading is a term which refers to the use of various technical indicators and advanced mathematics to make decisions about the timing, price and quantity of a market order. Trades are made without human intervention using information r ...

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An allotment generally refers to a quota of shares given to a participating underwriting firm at the time of an initial public offering (IPO).

Remaining surpluses go to rest of the firms that have won the tender for the right to sell the l ...

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A coefficient which measures risk-adjusted performance, factoring in the stock specific risk, rather than the market risk. A high value for alpha implies that the stock or mutual fund has performed better than would have been expected given its be ...

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Altcoins are the different cryptocurrencies started after the achievements of Bitcoin.

For the most part, they offer themselves as a better option to Bitcoin.

The expression "altcoins" alludes to all digital currencies ot ...

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Altman Z-Score

The Altman Z-score can be defined as the yield of a credit-quality test that checks a publicly-traded manufacturing organization's probability of bankruptcy.

The Altman Z-score depends on 5 financial ratios that can compute from data i ...

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Andrew's Pitchfork

This technical indicator uses three parallel trendlines to identify possible levels of support and resistance. The trendlines are created by placing three points at the end of identified trends. This is usually achieved by placing the points in th ...

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Annual Report

An annual report is a distribution that publicly traded organizations have to provide on a yearly basis to its investors to explain their operations and financial situations.

The forward portion of the report generally contains graphics, p ...

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Annual Return

The annual return can be describes as the profits that an investment gives over a stretch of time, formatted as a time-weighted annual percentage.

Origins of profits can incorporate dividends, profits of capital and capital appreciation....

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Aroon Indicator

Aroon indicator is based on the assumption that a stock's price will close at record highs in an uptrend, and record lows in a downtrend. It is made up of two lines: one line is called "Aroon up", which measures the strength of the u ...

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Ascending Triangle

Patterns traders look for this chart formation produced by a series of lows, each successively higher than the last, and a series of highs that are at approximately the same level. It is considered a bullish formation when volume increases on the ...

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An asset can be defined as a resource with monetary value that a person, organization, or nation controls or owns with the desire that it will give a future advantage.

Assets are shown on an organization's balance sheet and are purchas ...

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The true range indicator is the greatest of the following: -current high less the current low. -the absolute value of the current high less the previous close. -the absolute value of the current low less the previous close. The average true rang ...

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The expression audit usually is used in order to allude to a fiscal summary audit.

A fiscal audit is an objective evaluation and assessment of the fiscal reports of an association to ensure that the fiscal records are a reasonable as well ...

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Authorized Share Capital

The maximum value of the shares (calculated at par value) that can be issued under a firm's articles of association. It can be increased only with shareholders' approval after modifying articles of approval. Most companies' authorised ...

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Automated Teller Machine (ATM)

An Automated Teller Machine or ATM is an electronic banking outlet that enables customers to carry on essential transactions without the need of a bank representative. Anybody with a credit or debit card can get to most ATMs. Although, certain cre ...

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ADX is non-directional and it only quantifies the strength of the trend regardless of whether it is up or down. ADX is usually plotted in a chart window along with two lines known as the DMI (Directional Movement Indicators). ADX is derived from t ...

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Average Return

The average return can be defined as the basic mathematical average of returns created over a particular time frame.


An average return is determined in a similar way as simple average is determined for any arrangement of num ...

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Average Selling Price (ASP)

The term Average Selling Price or ASP is the price, which a particular quality of goods or services are generally sold at. The average selling price is influenced by the kind of product and its life cycle.


The average sellin ...

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Back Testing

Optimizing a moving average or trading strategy on historical data. This is an important skill to acquire for traders.


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Balance Sheet

A balance sheet is a financial report that shows a company's assets, liabilities and investors' equity at a specific particular in time, and gives a premise for calculating rates of return and assessing its capital structure. It is a fisca ...

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Base Metals

Base metals are major industrial non-ferrous metals, notably copper, lead, tin, zinc, aluminium, nickel.


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Basis Trading

It is an arbitrage position made up of short position in futures contract and long in underlying using the cash proceeds. ...

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Bear Market

A bear market is the point at which a market encounters prolonged price falls. It depicts a condition wherein prices of stocks fall 20% or more from ongoing highs in the midst pessimism and negative sentiment from trader.


Be ...

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Bear Raid

It is a form of fraud. An attempt to depress a market to cover a short position by the dissemination of negative rumours or widespread short- selling.


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Bear Trap

A false move to the downside that does not start a new downtrend. It is the final reaction prior to an advance, hence trapping the bears.


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bearish belt-hold

A bearish belt-hold is a tall black candlestick that opens on, or near, its high and closes well below the opening price. It is also called a black opening shaven head. The bullish counterpart of this pattern in bullish belt hold. ...

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bearish engulfing pattern

A bearish engulfing candlestick pattern occurs when selling pressure overwhelms buying force as reflected by a long black real body engulfing a prior small white real body in an uptrend. The bullish counterpart of this pattern in bullish engulfing ...

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A measure of the market/nondiversifiable risk associated with any given security in the market. A ratio of an individual?s stock historical returns to the historical returns of the stock market. ...

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Big Mac Index

An index devised by 'The Economist' magazine to illustrate the notion of purchasing power parity. The Big Mac Index compares the price of McDonald's Big Mac burgers in various countries as a guide to whether currencies are overvalued o ...

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Binary Option

Also called an all-or-nothing option, digital option or one-touch option. An option that pays out a fixed amount if the underlying financial instrument on which it is based reaches the strike price either at expiry, or at any time during the life ...

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black opening shaven head

A black opening shaven head is a tall black candlestick that opens on, or near, its high and closes well below the opening price. It is also called a bearish belt-hold.


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The term blockchain has been around for almost over a decade now. Whenever terms like Bitcoin, Ether, Ripple etc. are used, a term that is often used with them is Blockchain. This because most of the cryptocurrencies are built on this technology. ...

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Blockchain as a Service (BaaS)

Blockchain as a Service (BaaS) can be defined as the third party creation as well as management of cloud based systems for organizations in the business of making blockchain software.


These third party services are a relativ ...

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Blue Chip

A blue chip can be defined as a nation wide recognized, well-established, and financially solid organization.


Blue chips by and large sell high quality, broadly accepted goods and services.


Blue chip o ...

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Bollinger bands

Bollinger bands are lines plotted one (or 2, 2.5 ...) standard deviation above and below the moving average of closing prices. A narrowing of the bands often indicate the start of a new trend, which is confirmed when prices close out of the band. Bol ...

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Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE)

The Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) is the first and biggest stock market exchange in India and was started in the year 1875 as the Native Share and Stock Brokers' Association.


Situated in Mumbai, India, the Bombay Stock Exc ...

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Breadth / Breadth Ratio

A measurement calculated by comparing the number of advancing stocks to the number of declining stocks. Computed by dividing the number of advances by the numbers of declines over a given time period. Also known as ADR (Advance Decline Ratio). Inv ...

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Breakaway Gap

Usually, a high-volume move out of a consolidation pattern without trading at the pervious period?s levels. ...

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A price drop below a significant support level or out of a consolidation pattern.


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An upward move exceeding a previously recorded high, resistance level, or through a bullish trendline or some other criteria, often on high volume.


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Breakout traders

Breakout traders generally look for key levels of support and resistance and will place orders when thestock price passes through these levels. Long positions are taken when the price of stock breaks through a level of resistance, and short positi ...

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Brexit is an contraction for "British exit," referring to the United Kingdom's choice in a June 23, 2016 referendum to exit the European Union (EU).


The poll's outcome defied expectations and troubled marke ...

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Broadening Top

A reversal pattern marked by a succession of at least three generally higher highs alternating with successively lower lows. Occurs after a notable price rise. The pattern is completed by a third breakdown, normally to a significantly lower low. S ...

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Bull Market

A bull market is the state of a financial markets in which the prices either experience a rise or are expected to experience a rise.


The expression "b ...

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Bull Trap

Occurs when in a bear market prices suddenly rise, luring in bulls taking long positions before resuming the downtrend.


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Bullish belt-hold

A bullish belt-hold is a tall white candlestick that opens on, or near, its low and closes well above it's opening price. It is also called a white opening shaven bottom. The bearish counterpart of this pattern in bearish belt hold.


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Bullish engulfing pattern

A bullish engulfing candlestick pattern is comprised of a large white real body that engulfs the prior small black real body in a downtrend. The bearish counterpart of this pattern in bearish engulfing pattern.


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Buy and Sell Agreement

A buy and sell agreement can be defined as a legitimately binding agreement that stipulates how a partner's share in the company might be reassigned if that partner dies or in any case leaves the business.


Most of the ti ...

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Buying Climax

Investors Intelligence defines a buying climax as when within one week, a new 52 week high is made followed by the stock falling and closing below the previous week's close. This can be an important reversal signal for the stock. Also the tota ...

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C Corporation

A C-corporation (or C-corp) can be defined as a legal structure for an organization in which the owners, or investors, are taxed independently from the entity.

C corporations, the most common of organizations, are likewise subject to corpo ...

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Call Option

Call options are derivative agreements that provides the option purchaser with the right, but not the obligation, to purchase a stock, bond or a commodity at a particular price within a particular period of time. The stock, bond, or commodity here ...

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candlestick charts

A method of charting derived by the Japanese (in 1700s) in which the open and close range are represented by rectangle called the real body (black for a close under the open, white for a close over the open). The lines above and below the real body ...

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Cash Dividend

A cash dividend can be defined as cash or funds paid to investors usually as part of the organization's present income or gathered profits.


The board of directors must announce the issuing of all dividends and determine ...

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Chaikin Oscillator

This oscillator measures the accumulation distribution line of the MACD. The Chaikin Oscillator is calculated by subtracting a 10-day EMA from a 3-day EMA of the accumulation distribution line, and outlines the momentum implied by the accumulation ...

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Chande Momentum Oscillator

This oscillator is similar to other momentum indicators such as the RSI (Relative Strength Index). It is created by calculating the difference between the sum of all recent gains and the sum of all recent losses and then dividing the result by the ...

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The area between two parallel trendlines, the upper trendline connecting most of the important price peaks or closes and the lower trendline connecting the important lows or closes. It is one of the most basic yet very effective tools for technica ...

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Chart patterns

Chart patterns are an integral part of technical analysis which looks at the big picture and help to identify the trading signals. History repeats itself, the theory behind chart patterns is based on this assumption. Means certain patterns occur a ...

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Chief Executive Officer (CEO)

A chief executive officer or CEO is the highest-ranking official in a company, whose essential duties incorporate settling on major corporate decisions, dealing with the general operations and assets of a company, acting as the central point of co ...

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Collateral is a resource that a bank or a money lender holds as security for advancing a loan.


On the off chance that the borrower defaults on her advance installments, the lender may hold onto the collateral and offer it fo ...

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Commodity is a basic good or raw material which is used in commerce and interchangeable with other commodities of the same type. Commodities are used in the production of other goods. The quality of a commodity may slightly differ but essentially ...

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Compound Annual Growth Rate – CAGR

Compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is the rate of return necessary for an investment to develop from its starting point to its ending point, with the assumption that benefits were reinvested towards the end of every year of the investments term....

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Continuation Pattern

A consolidation that temporarily interrupts a rally or declines and sets the stage for another move in the same direction.


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Cost of Revenue

The cost of revenue can be defined as the total expense of assembling as well as delivering a good or service to customers.


Cost of revenue information can be found in a organization's income statement and is intended to ...

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The interest paid on a bond expressed as a percentage of the face value. If a bond carries a fixed coupon the interest is usually paid on an annual or semi-annual basis. The term also refers to the detachable certificate entitling the bearer to th ...

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A cryptocurrency can be defined as a virtual or digital currency that is protected by cryptography, which makes it nearly impossible for anyone to counterfeit it or double-spend it.


Most of the cryptocurrencies are decentral ...

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Cup and Handle Pattern

A pattern oncandlestick charts resembles a cup with a handle. The cup is in the shape of a "U" and the handle has a slight downward drift. The right-hand side of the pattern has low trading volume. Both highs made on the 2 edges of Cup should be at a ...

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Current Yield

Current yield can be defined as an investment's yearly earnings either via interest or via dividend payments; divided by the present day market price of the stock.


This measure analyzes the present day market price of a ...

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Dark-cloud cover

A bearish reversal signal. In an uptrend a long white candlestick is followed by a black candlestick that opens above the prior white candlestick's high (or close) and then closes well into the white candlestick's real body?preferably more ...

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Dead Cross

A bearish signal given when a short-term moving average on a Japanese candlestick chart crosses under a longer-term moving average. Its bullish counterpart is the golden cross.


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Debt Service Ratio

The ratio of debt to cash available to service interest payments and principal repayments. The higher the ratio the easier it is to obtain loans.


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Dematerialization (DEMAT)

Dematerialization (DEMAT) can be defined as the change from physical security certificates to electronic accounting.


Actual security certificates are then expelled and eventually retired from circulation in return for electr ...

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Demonetization can be described as the action of depriving a currency unit of its value as legal tender.


It happens at a point when there is a change in currency of a country: The present form or forms of cashis pulled from ...

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A derivative can be defined as a financial security with its worth that is dependent upon or derived from, a security or group of securities i.e. a benchmark index.


The derivative itself is a agreement between at least two p ...

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Descending Triangle

Another importanat pattern for pattern traders. This is a continuation pattern with bearish implication. Volume is normally higher near the lows and decreases near the highs, downsloping trendline is approached. A break below the lower horizontal lin ...

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Discounted cash flow

Discounted cash flow is a method of calculating the current worth of future cash flows from an asset or investment taking into account the time that is likely to elapse before money is received and the risk involved. Future cash flows are estimated a ...

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Displaced moving average

DMA. A technique used in technical analysis that involves shifting the moving average curve forward or backward in time along a stock price chart in order to see if a trend exists. ...

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Occurs when one indicator moving, not in conjunction or agreement with another indicator. Such nonconfirmations often signal reversals. The most watched divergence is MACD and RSI divergence. This happens when prices make a higher high but MACD makes ...

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Diversification is a risk management technique that blends a wide assortment of investments inside a portfolio.

A diversified portfolio contains a blend of distinct resource types and investment vehicles in an attempt at constraining expos ...

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A dividend is the distribution of reward from a part of the company's revenue and is paid to a class of its investors.


Dividends are determined and overseen by the board of directors of the company, however they must be ...

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Dividend Growth Rate

The dividend growth rate can be defined as the annualized percentage rate of development that a particular security’s dividend payment experiences over a stretch of time.


Having the option to figure the dividend growth ...

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Dividend Rate

The dividend rate can be defined as the total expected dividend payments from an investment, fund or portfolio formatted as an annualized premise in addition to any extra non recurring dividends that an investor may get during that time frame.


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Dividend Yield

The dividend yield can be defined as the ratio of a organization's yearly dividend contrasted with its stock price per share.


The dividend yield is shown as a rate and is calculated as follows:


Div ...

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A session in which the open and close on a Japanese candlestick are same (or almost same). A doji candlestick looks like a cross, inverted cross or plus sign. There are different varieties of doji lines (see gravestone, dragonfly, and long-legged doj ...

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Donchian Channels

A moving average indicator developed by Richard Donchian. It plots the highest high and lowest low over the last period time intervals. ...

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Double Bottom

A reversal type chart pattern distinguished by two successive declines, both terminating at approximately the same level. When completed, accomplished by a rise on volume above the high between the two lows, the pattern often resembles the letter ...

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A downtick can be defined as a transaction for a financial security that happens at a lower price than the last transaction.


A downtick happens when a security's price falls in comparison to the previous trade.

& ...

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Dumpling tops

A candlestick charting pattern that is similar to the Western rounding top. A window to the downside is needed to confirm this as a top. Its bullish opposite is the frypan bottom. ...

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Dutch Auction

An auction in which bids descend to the level at which all of an issue of securities can be sold. It is used for U.S. Treasury auctions.


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Dynamic Hedging Strategy

A hedging technique which seeks to limit an investment's exposure to delta and gamma by adjusting the hedge as the underlying security changes (hence, "dynamic"). The strategy is frequently used by financial professionals working wit ...

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Earnings normally allude to after tax net income, some times referred to as the bottom line or an organization's profits.


Earnings are the primary determinant of an organization's stock price, since earnings and the ...

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Earnings Per Share – EPS

Earnings per share (EPS) is determined as an company's benefit divided by the outstanding shares of its common security. The outcome fills in as a sign of a company's growth and profitability.


EPS basically shows the ...

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Earnings Yield

The earnings yield can be defined as the earnings per share for the latest year divided by the present market price per share.


The earnings yield (which is the converse of the price to earnings ratio) shows the percentage of ...

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Efficient market Hypothesis

This hypothesis suggest that all known information is already discounted by the market and reflected in the price due to market participants acting upon the information. ...

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An entrepreneur is a person who makes a new business, bearing greater part of the dangers and getting most of the rewards. The entrepreneur is usually observed as an innovator, a source of new ideas, products, services, and business/or methodologi ...

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Formed by two moving averages that define upper and lower price range levels. These averages are plotted certain percentages above and below the average price line in a trading chart. The purpose of an envelope is to dampen or help escape the effect ...

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Ethical Investing

Ethical investing can be defined as the act of utilizing one's ethical standards as the essential filter for the choosing of stocks for investing.


Ethical investing relies upon the speculator's perspectives.


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European Union

The European Union or the EU is a group of 28 nations that works as a cohesive economic and political square. Nineteen of the nations use the euro as their default currency.


The European Union became out of a craving to fram ...

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Evening Star

A top reversal pattern comprised of three candle lines on a Japanese candlestick chart. The first is a tall white real body, the second is a small real body (white or black) that gaps above the first real body to form a star, and the third is a bl ...

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Exchange Traded Derivative

An exchange traded derivative can be defined as a financial agreement that is listed as well as trades on a regulated stock market exchange.


Basically, these are derivatives that are traded in a controlled manner.

&n ...

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Exchange Traded Fund (ETF)

An exchange traded fund (ETF) is a sort of investment that includes an array of securities; for example, stocks—that generally track an underlying index, in spite of the fact that they can put resources into any number of industry segments o ...

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Extensible Markup Language (XML)

Extensible Markup Language (XML) is an adaptable markup language for organized digital documents.

Extensible Markup Language is a markup language that characterizes a lot of rules for encoding files in an arrangement that is both human-rea ...

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Factors of Production

Factors of production are the sources required for the formation of a good or service. The factors of production primarily incorporate land, labor, entrepreneurship, and capital.


Land as a Factor


Land ...

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Falling Three Methods

This bearish candlestick pattern is used to predict the continuation of the current downtrend. This pattern is formed when the candlesticks meet the following characteristics: 1. The first candle in the pattern is a long red candlestick within a defi ...

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Fast Fashion

Fast fashion is the expression used to portray attire designs that move rapidly from the catwalk to outlets to meet new trends.


The collections are usually founded on designs introduced at Fashion Week occasions. Fast fashio ...

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Fibonacci Arcs

A method of using charts to predict key support and resistance levels, as well as price targets. These are created by first drawing a trend line between two points, then by drawing three curves that intersect this trendline at the key Fibonacci level ...

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Fibonacci Fan

A charting technique consisting of three diagonal lines that use Fibonacci ratios to help identify key levels of support and resistance. ...

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Fibonacci Numbers

Fibonacci numbers are utilized to make technical indicators with the help of a mathematical sequence created in the 13th century by the Italian mathematician Leonardo Bonacci.


The name with which he is more widely recognized ...

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Fibonacci Time Zones

Method used to predict trend changes or price reversals in technical analysis. On a price chart, lines are drawn at given price points that correspond to the Fibonacci sequence of numbers in a specific range of time. The first line is usually draw ...

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Financial Instrument

Financial instruments are the monetary contract between parties which can be created, modified, traded, and settled. In other words, financial instruments are tradable assets or negotiable items which underlie a derivative. Financial instruments c ...

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Financial Technology – Fintech

Financial technology (Fintech) is an expression used to depict new tech that aims to improve and digitize the conveyance and utilization of financial services.


At its center, fintech is used to help organizations, entreprene ...

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Fiscal Deficit

A fiscal deficit can be defined as a shortfall in a administration's income contrasted with its expenses.


The administration that has a fiscal deficit has expenditures too far in the red.


A fiscal ...

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Forex stands for Foreign Exchange. Forex is the commercial center where currencies of different nations are traded. The forex market is the biggest, most liquid market on the planet, with trillions of dollars being traded everyday.

 < ...

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Fourier Analysis

A mathematical analysis that attempts to find cycles within a time series of data after detrending the data. For example, a Fourier analysis can be done on a time series of price data for a product over twenty years, but only after the effects of inf ...

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Frypan Bottom

Japanese candlestick pattern is similar to a Western rounding bottom. A win?dow to the upside confirms this pattern. It is the counterpart of the dumpling top. ...

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Fundamental Analysis

Fundamental analysis (FA) can be defined as a technique of measuring a stock’s intrinsic value by analyzing related economic as well as financial components.


Fundamental analysts study all the things that have the abil ...

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You might have heard the word fundamentals on TV while watching stock analysis. Fund managers and stock analysts talk about stocks which have strong fundamentals. Fundamental analysis involves evaluating a security to assess its intrinsic value by e ...

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Future Value (FV)

Future value (FV) can be defined as the value of a present asset at a future date dependent on an assumed pace of development.


The future value is imperative to investors and investment managers as they utilize it to evaluat ...

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Futures are the most common form of the derivatives. Derivatives are the financial instruments that drive their value from an underlying asset or a group of asset. The underlying can be stock, indices, currency, commodity, or any other asset. The ...

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A measurement of the change in the delta of an option compared to a change in the price of the underlying financial instrument on which the option is based. ...

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A gap can be defined as a region of a chart where a stock’s price either rises or tumbles from the yesterday’s close with no exchanging happening in between.


Gaps generally happen when either a news or an event r ...

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General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)

The General Data Protection Regulation or the GDPR is a legal structure that declares the rules for the collection and handling of individual data from people who live in the European Union (EU).


Since the regulation applies ...

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Giffen Goods

A Giffen good is a product that is bought by low income workers, and that defies law of demand in economics.


According to the law of demand, usually when the price of a normal good rises, its demand falls and when its price ...

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Globalization is the spread of items, innovation, data, and occupations across national boundries and societies.


In economic terms, it portrays a reliance of countries around the world encouraged through organized commerce.< ...

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Gray Market

A gray market or ‘grey market’ can be described as an informal market for financial securities.


Gray market exchanging, for the most part happens, when a stock that has been suspended from stock market exchanges, ...

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Gross Earnings

Gross earnings, for people, allude to the complete income earned before any tax deduction are applied or any adjustments are made.


For public organizations, gross earnings can be defined as a bookkeeping convention, alluding ...

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Gross Income

Gross income for a person—also referred to as gross pay when it's on a check—can be defined as the person's total pay from their employer prior to taxes or other deductions.


This involves earnings from al ...

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Gross Yield

The gross yield of an speculation can be defined as its profits prior to deduction of taxes and expenses.


Gross yield is formatted in percentage terms.


It is measured as the yearly return on an specula ...

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Half Stock

A half stock can be defined as a stock sold with a face value that is half of what is viewed as to be the standard price. The face value alludes to the par value of a bond, or in some circumstances, a stock.


Half stock can b ...

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An important bottoming candlestick charting pattern. The hammer and the hanging man are both the same lines that are generally called umbrella lines, i.e. a small real body (white or black) at the top of the session's range and a very long lower shad ...

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Hang Seng Index (HSI)

The Hang Seng Index or the HSI can be described as a market cap weighted index of the biggest organizations that are being traded on the Hong Kong Exchange.


A subsidiary of the Hang Seng Bank manages the Hang Seng Index and ...

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Hanging man

A top candlestick reversal pattern that requires confirmation. The hanging man and the hammer are both the same type of candlestick pattern. ...

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A two-candlestick charting pattern in which a small real body holds within the prior session's unusually large real body. The harami implies the immediately preceding trend is con?cluded, and the bulls and bears are now in a state of truce. The color ...

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Harami cross

A harami with a doji on the second session instead of a small real body. An important top (bottom) candlestick charting reversal signal especially after a tall white (black) candlestick line. It is also called a petrifying pattern on candlestick char ...

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Hawala is an unofficial way of money transfer, which does not involve any actual movement physical money.


Interpol's describes hawala as "transfer of money without any physical movement." Another description of ...

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Head and Shoulders Top

A pattern characterized by a series of three peaks, the first and third being lower than the middle. Volume, heavy on the first peak, declines on the next two. Completion is marked by the breaking of the ?neckline? ( an extension of the line connecti ...

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Heikin Ashi Technique

A method of candlestick chart modification that eliminates irregularities and helps identify strong trends. No gaps will appear using this approach. Each candlestick is calculated by a formula to create an average for the open and close for the day. ...

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Historical Volatility

It is normally expressed as a percentage and is calculated as the annualised standard deviation of the percentage change in daily price. ...

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High-net-worth individual (HNI) is an individual or family with liquid resources over a specific figure.


The term is frequently utilized by the financial services sector.


Despite the fact that there is ...

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Hold or holding, can be described as market strategy or an analyst's suggestion to neither purchase nor sell an investment.


A organization with a hold suggestion usually is relied upon to perform with the market or at th ...

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Holding Company

A holding company can be described as a parent enterprise, limited liability company, or limited partnership that possesses enough voting shares in another organization, that it can control that organization's policies as well as regulate its ...

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A hot IPO can be defined as an initial public offering of share in an organization, whose security attracts a lot of investors and for which there is raised demand.

There are different approaches to go public other than an initial public o ...

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Human Capital

Human capital is an intangible resource or quality not recorded on a company's balance sheet. It tends to be delegated as the financial value of an employee's experience and aptitudes. Including resources such as education, training, knowl ...

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Ichimoku Kinko Hyo

A technical charting technique which generates a series of lines and levels that help an investor determine the movement of an asset. It indicates support and resistance levels, as well as entry and exit points. Although relatively complicated to lea ...

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Implied Volatility

The expected volatility in the price of a security. ...

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Impulse Wave

A pattern observed in the stock market as part of the Elliot Wave Principle (a theory that suggests the cyclic nature of market movements can be predicted based on an understanding of investor psychology). Waves or surges of movement seem to occur in ...

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In The Money and (ITM) Out Of The Money (OTM)

In the money (ITM) is a expression that alludes to an option that has intrinsic value. In the money, hence signifies that an option has value at a strike price that is favorable when compared to the existing market price of a stock:


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In-App Purchasing

In-app purchasing can be defined as the process of purchasing of goods and services within an application on a smartphone, tablet or a Personal Computer.


In-app purchases enable developers to publish their apps for free.


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Index Option

An index option can be defined as a financial derivative that provides the option contract holder the right, but not the obligation, to purchase or sell the value of an underlying index, for example, the Nifty 50, at the expressed exercise price o ...

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Indicators represent a statistical approach to technical analysis. With the help of indicators, investors and traders can get the secondary measure to actual price movement. Indicators are helpful to confirm the accuracy of chart patterns by looking ...

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Stock market index is a measure of the relative value of a group of stocks in numerical terms. Some stocks which are listed on the exchange are selected and grouped together to form an index. When the stocks within an index change their value, index ...

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Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was a time of significant industrialization and advancement that occurred during the late 1700s and early 1800s. The Industrial Revolution started in Great Britain and immediately spread all through the world.

&nb ...

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Initial Public Offering (IPO)

An initial public offering (IPO) alludes to the process of offering portions of a private enterprise to the general public buy issuing stocks.


Issuance of public share enables a company to raise capital from public investors ...

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Insider Trading

Insider trading can be defined as the purchasing or selling of a publicly traded organization's equity by an individual who has access to material information about that equity, that has not been in the public domain yet.


< ...

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Intrinsic Value

The intrinsic value of an asset shows the worth of that asset.


This value is < ...

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Inverse ETF

An inverse ETF can be defined as an exchange traded fund (ETF) developed by utilizing different derivatives to profit from a decline in the value of an underlying benchmark.


Putting resources into inverse exchange traded fun ...

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Inverted Hammer

A candlestick chart pattern that occurs when a security had been declining in previous sessions, and then temporarily trades high throughout the day's session, but by the end of the day the market realized it could not support that level of trading a ...

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Investment Securities

Investment securities can be defined as securities (tradable financial assets, for example, stocks or fixed income instruments) that are bought so as to be owned for investment.


This is as opposed to securities, which are bo ...

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Investor is a person who allocates capital with the expectation of financial returns in the future. Investors utilize their investment to grow their money. A wide range of investment avenues exists in the market including equity, debt securities, com ...

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Irregular Flat

A type of Elliott wave correction that has a 3-3-5 wave pattern, where the B wave terminates beyond the start of wave A. A ?flat? is in progress, implying that a lager pattern is developing. It will contain waves of one higher degree than the A-B-C w ...

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Island Reversal

A very rare Japanese candlestick top or bottom reversal signal. It is comprised of a doji star that gaps away (including shadows) from the prior and following sessions' candlesticks. This is the same as a "abandoned baby" at top or bottom in which th ...

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January Effect

The tendency for securities prices to recover in January after tax-related selling is completed before the year-end. ...

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Jay-Z, born Shawn Corey Carter on Dec. 4, 1969, is an American rapper, music producer, entrepreneur, and investor. With total assets worth $1 billion, as indicated by Forbes Magazine, Jay-Z is the rap artist to become a billionaire.


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Jennifer Lopez

An informal technical analysis term used to indicate the rounding bottom in a stock's price, especially as seen on a chart or graph. The term is inspired by singer and actress celebrity Jennifer Lopez, who is known for having a curvaceous figure. ...

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John Bogle

John Bogle was the founder of the Vanguard Group and a significant supporter of index investing.


Mostly know as 'Jack', Bogle changed the mutual fund industry by developing index investing, which enables investors to ...

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Joint Account

A joint account can be defined as a bank or brokerage account that is shared between at least two people.


Joint accounts are well on the way to be utilized by family members, couples, or colleagues who have a degree of knowi ...

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Joint Liability

Joint liability can be defined as the obligation of two or more accomplices to take care of an obligation or be answerable for fulfilling a liability.


A joint liability enables partners to split the risks related with taking ...

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Joint Stock Company

The new age organization has its roots in the joint stock organization.


A joint stock organization is a business owned by its shareholders, with every shareholder possessing a share based on the sum of equity bought.


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A journal can be defined as a well described account that records all the transactions of an organization, to be utilized for forthcoming reconciling of and transfer to other formal bookkeeping accounts, such as the ledger.



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Junior Equity

Junior equity can be defined as stock issued by an organization that positions at the base of the priority ladder in regards to the ownership structure.


Common stock is generally alluded to as junior equity since it is subor ...

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Junior Security

A junior security can be described as a security that has a lower priority claim than other securities with reference to the earnings or assets of its issuer.


For instance, common stock is classified as a junior security con ...

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K can be described as a fifth letter added to a four letter NASDAQ stock symbol in order to indicate that the security does not have any voting rights.


The letter K is one of numerous fifth letters that mean something specif ...

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Kairi Relative Index (KRI)

An oscillating indicator used to spot relationships and track price fluctuations in trending markets. It was created in Japan by an unknown designer at an unknown date. Once popular, more popular modern indexes have since emerged. It calculates the d ...

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Keltner Channel

An advanced technical analysis method, which uses an upper and lower band to indicate a 10-day moving average around the typical market price. A close around the upper band it is said to signify a bull market, and a close around the lower band is sai ...

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Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)

Key performance indicators (KPIs) can be defined as a set of quantifiable estimations used to measure an organization's overall long term performance.


KPIs explicitly help decide an organization's strategic, economic ...

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Key Ratio

Key ratios can be defined as the main arithmetic ratios that outline and abridge the current financial state of an organization.


Key ratios can be utilized to effortlessly to get an idea of an organization's financial st ...

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Key reversal day

A pattern seen when charting a stock, where a stock price within the course of a day will completely change its pattern. To qualify as a key reversal day, the price can either start by opening at a level above the previous high, continuing to rise, a ...

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Kin is cryptocurrency. The popular messenger service Kik's cryptocurrency is known as Kin.


While independent cryptocurrencies like bitcoin have paved the way for the business, more existing organizations are wandering in ...

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Know Your Client (KYC)

The Know Your Client or Know Your Customer or KYC can be explained as a defined rule in the investment sector that makes sure that the investment consultants have the detailed data about their clients' risk tolerance, investment knowledge, and ...

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Korea Stock Exchange (KRX)

The Korea Stock Exchange can be described as a division of the lot bigger Korea Exchange (KRX, or the Exchange).


Beforehand, Korea's stock market was an independent element.


In the year 2005, the K ...

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K-ratio can be defined as a ratio that analyzes the consistency of a security’s return over the period time.


The information for the ratio comes from a value added monthly index (VAMI), that checks and reports the prog ...

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Kyoto Protocol

The Kyoto Protocol is a worldwide understanding that intended to lessen carbon dioxide (CO2) outflows and the presence of ozone depleting substances like green house gasses in the air. The basic precept of the Kyoto Protocol was that industrialize ...

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Law of Demand

The law of demand works along with the law of supply to clarify how market economies allot assets and decide the prices of goods and services that we observe in ordinary transactions.


The law of demand states that quantity b ...

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Law Of Supply

The law of supply can be defined as the micro-economic law that states that, every other factors remaining the same, as the price of a product increases, the quantity of products that providers offer will also increase, and when the price of a pro ...

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Legal Monopoly

A legal monopoly alludes to a situation where an organization that is working as a monopoly under a government command.


A legal monopoly offers a particular item or service at a controlled price. It can either be autonomousl ...

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A liability is something an individual or organization owes, generally an amount of money.


Liabilities are settled over the period of time by the transfer of financial benefits that include money, products, or services.


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A general term used to indicate how easily transaction can be executed at or near a given price in a given market. More liquid markets usually have low bid-ask spreads. A liquid stock can absorb more buying (selling) before a significant price change ...

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Liquid Market

A liquid market can be defined as a market with numerous accessible purchasers and sellers and comparatively low exchange costs. The subtleties of what makes a market liquid may differ based on the resource being traded.


In ...

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Logarithmic chart

A chart for which the price scale (usually on the vertical axis) is skewed so that a given distance always represents the same percentage change in price, rather than the same absolute change in price (as is the case for a linear chart). In other wor ...

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London Metal Exchange (LME)

The London Metal Exchange (LME) can be described as a commodities market exchange that deals in metals options contracts and futures contracts.


The London Metal Exchange is classified as a non ferrous exchange, which implies ...

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London Stock Exchange (LSE)

The London Stock Exchange (LSE) can be described as the major stock market exchange in the United Kingdom and the biggest stock market exchange in Europe.


Having its origins in the year 1773, the stock market regional exchan ...

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Long term Growth (LTG)

Long term growth (LTG) can be defined as an investment technique that tries to expand the worth of a portfolio over a multi year time period.


Albeit long term is relative to an speculators’ time zones and personal styl ...

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Long-term investment

Investments which are kept for more than one year are known as long-term investments. The timeframe for long-term investment is different for different individuals or companies. Like for the purpose of capital gain tax long term is 1 year. But most o ...

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The crossing of two exponentially smoothed moving averages that are plotted above and below a zero line. The crossover, movement through the zero line, and divergences generate buy and sell signals. ...

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Mark to Market

At the end of each business day the open positions carried in an account held at a brokerage firm are credited or debited funds based on the settlement price of the open positions that day. ...

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Mark Zuckerberg

Mark Zuckerberg is the self-taught software engineer and self-made multi-billionaire and the co-founder, chairman and chief executing officer of Facebook, Inc.


Facebook was established by Mark in his Harvard University dormi ...

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Market Analysis

Research intended to predict the future of a market. ...

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Market Cannibalization

Market cannibalization can be defined as a loss in sales brought about by an organization's presentation of a new good or service that dislodges one of its own established products.


The cannibalization of existing items ...

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Market Capitalization

Market capitalization alludes to the total monetary market value of an organization's outstanding shares of its security.


Generally, known as "market cap," it is determined by multiplying the total number of a ...

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Market Price

The market price can be defined as the present price at which a security or service can be purchased or sold.


The economic theory states that the market price converges at a place where the powers of demand and supply meet.< ...

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Market Timing

Market timing can be defined as a kind of investment or trading technique.


It is the demonstration of moving in and out of a stock market or exchanging between asset classes dependent on predictive techniques.


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A marubozu candlestick is a candlestick with no or very small upper or lower shadow. For a white candlestick marubozu, its open is equal to its low, and its close is equal to its high. For a black marubozu candlestick it means that its open is equal ...

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Mining can be described as an indispensable part of a cryptocurrency network that carries out two significant functions.


To begin with, it is utilized to create as well as discharge new cryptocurrency tokens for circulation ...

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Momentum Indicator

A market indicator utilizing price and volume statistics for predicting the strength and weakness of a current market and any overbought or oversold conditions, and to note turning points within the market. ...

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A monopoly is a situation when a company/organization and its product(s) dominate a industry.


Monopolies can be viewed as an extreme consequence of free-markets, that don’t have any limitation or restrictions, a single ...

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Morning Star

Morning star is bullish counterpart of evening star pattern. It is a bullish bottom reversal pattern. The formation is formed by 3 candlesticks. The first candlestick is a tall black real body followed by the second, a small real body, which gaps bel ...

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Mutual Funds

A mutual fund is a kind of monetary vehicle made up of a pool of money gathered from numerous investors to put into stocks, bonds, and other resources.


Mutual funds are managed by professional money managers, who allot the f ...

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Negative Growth

Negative growth can be described as a compression in company sales or profits.


It is additionally put into use in order to refer to a contraction in a nation's economy, which is shown in a decline in its Gross Domestic P ...

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Net Domestic Product (NDP)

Net domestic product (NDP) is an annual measure of the financial yield of a country that is balanced to account for depreciation costs. To calculate NDP subtract depreciation from the gross domestic product (GDP).


Net domest ...

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Net Operating Income – NOI

Net operating income (NOI) can be defined as a figuring utilized to break down the profitability of income generating real estate investments.


Net operating income is equal to all income from the property, minus all sensibly ...

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Networking can be defined as the activity of trading of data and thoughts among individuals with a common occupation or special intrigue, for the most part in an casual social setting.


Networking is utilized by a lot of prof ...

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News Trader

News Trader is an expression used to describe a trader or an investor who takes decisions dependent on news declarations. Trading choices are made based on the significance of a news.


Breaking news, monetary reports and othe ...

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night attack

The Japanese candlestick trading expression for a large order placed at the close to try to affect the market. ...

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Nominal Rate of Return

The nominal rate of return can be defined as the measure of money produced by a speculation prior to accounting for costs such as taxes, investment fees, as well as inflation.


If an investment produced a 10 per cent return, ...

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Nominal Value

Nominal value of a stock, generally known as face or standard value, is its recovery price and is typically expressed on the front of that stock.


As for bonds and stocks, it is the expressed value of an issued security, rath ...

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Non Security

A non security can be defined as an alternative speculation that is not exchanged on a open market exchange, such as other securities and stocks are.


Assets, for example, art, rare vintage currency, life insurance, gold, as ...

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Oligopoly is a market structure with a few firms collectively control a industry and, none of which can shield the others from having noteworthy impact.


A monopoly is one firm controlling an industry, duopoly is two firms co ...

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On Balance Volume

OBV is an indicator that adds a period?s volume to a cumulative total when the close is up and subtracts the period?s volume from the cumulative total when the close is down. The cumulative total is plotted as the OBV line. This line can then be comp ...

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One Night Stand Investment

A one night stand investment can be defined as a bought stock that was meant for a long-term investment, however is rather sold very quickly, a lot of the times as soon as the following day.


One night stand investments are f ...

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OneCoin describes itself as a cryptocurrency framework based on the blockchain technology. It is promoted by OneCoin Limited, a organization that works across the world with physical workplaces in Europe, Hong Kong and the United Arab Emirates.


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Operating Income

Operating income can be defined as a bookkeeping figure that gauges the amount of profit used from a business' activities, after subtracting working expenses such as wages, depreciation, and Cost of Goods Sold or COGS.


O ...

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Option Cycle

Option cycle alludes to the expiry dates that apply to the various classes of options.


A recently listed option is allocated a cycle randomly to comprehensively circulate options across different periods of time.

&nb ...

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Option Greeks

The option Greeks are a series of measures of the rate of change in price of a security with another variable. Each is named after a Greek letter with the exception of vega which is not a Greek letter. ...

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Options On Futures

An option on a futures contract provides the option contract owner the right, however not the commitment, to purchase or sell a particular futures contract at a strike price on or prior to the option contract's expiry date.



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Over Bought / Over Sold

A technical condition that occurs when price is considered to have risen or fallen too far, too fast and is susceptible a pullback. Overbought / oversold indicators (RSI, stochastic) for example) often have values within the range 0 to 100, with over ...

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Over The Counter Market

An over the counter (OTC) market can be described as a decentralized market in which market members exchange securities, commodities, currencies as well as other financial instruments of investment, directly between two people and in the absence o ...

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PayPal is an e-commerce organization that manages payments between two people or two companies via online money transfers. PayPal enables its clients to establish an account on its application, which is linked to a customer's credit card or ba ...

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piercing pattern

A Japanese candlestick bottom reversal signal. In a downtrend, a long black candlestick is followed by a gap lower open during the next session. This session finishes as a strong white candlestick that closes more than halfway into the prior black ca ...

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Pink Sheets

Pink sheets can be described as a listing administration for securities that exchange by means of over-the-counter (OTC).


Pink sheet listings are organizations that are not listed on a significant exchange like the National ...

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Piotroski Score

What Is the Piotroski Score?

The Piotroski score is a discrete score between 0-9 that reflects nine criteria used to determine the strength of a firm's financial position. The Piotroski score is used to determine the best value stock ...

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Preferred Stock

The expression "stock" alludes to possession or equity in a company.


There are two kinds of stocks - preferred stock and common stock.


Preferred stock investors have a higher case to profits ...

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Pre-IPO Placement

A pre-Initial Public Offering (IPO) placement can be defined as a private sale shares in large quantities before the shares are listed on a stock market exchange.


The purchasers are generally private, hedge funds, and other ...

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Price To Book Ratio (P/B Ratio)

Organizations utilize the price to book ratio (P/B ratio) to contrast a company's market cap with its book value.


It's determined by dividing the organization's stock price per equity share by its book value per ...

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Price to Earnings Ratio – P/E

We use the price to earnings or the p/e ratio in order to estimate the value of a company. Price to earnings ratio is calculated by dividing Market Price of a stock by its earnings per share or EPS.


P/E proportions are utili ...

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Primary price

Capital market is divided into two types � Primary Market Primary market is also known as primary capital market or new issue market. In primary investors buy securities directly from the company which is issuing the security. When company sell n ...

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The term Profit is used to describe the fiscal advantage earned when income generated from a business activity surpasses the expenses, costs, and taxes engaged in supporting the activity in question.


Any profits earned pipe ...

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Put Option

A put option can be defined as a contract that provides the option holder the right, but not the obligation, to sell, or sell short, a predefined amount of an underlying stock at a predetermined price within a predetermined period of time.


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Qualifying Investment

A qualifying investment alludes to an investment bought with pretax earnings, generally as a commitment to a retirement plan.


Assets used to buy qualified investments don't get subject to tax collection until the shareho ...

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Qualitative Analysis

Qualitative analysis is a process of analyzing stocks, that utilizes subjective judgment dependent on non-quantifiable data, for example, the executives aptitude, industry cycles, quality of innovative work and worker relations.



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Quantitative Analysis (QA)

Quantitative analysis (QA) can be defined as a strategy that tries to learn nature of something with the help of mathematical and statistical modeling, measurement, and research.


Quantitative analysts seek to reflect a given ...

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Quantitative Trading

Quantitative trading comprises of trading techniques that are dependent on quantitative analysis, which depend on mathematical calculations and number crunching to recognize trading opportunities.


As quantitative trading is ...

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Quantity Demanded

Quantity demanded is the total amount of a goods or services that required by consumers over a given specific of time. Quantity demanded relies upon the price of a good, whether the market is in equilibrium or not.


The relat ...

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A quarter is a 3 month time span on an organization's fiscal schedule that goes about as a basis for intermittent fiscal summaries and the giving out of the dividends.


A quarter alludes to one-fourth of a year and is com ...

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Quarter on Quarter

Quarter on quarter (QOQ) is an estimating system that computes the change between one monetary quarter and the past financial quarter.


The expression is like the year-over-year (YOY) measure, which compares the quarter of on ...

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Quarter Over Quarter (Q/Q)

Quarter over quarter (Q/Q) is a proportion of a speculation or an organization's development starting with one quarter then onto the next.


Quarter Over Quarter development is most usually used to look at an organization& ...

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Quarter to date (QTD)

Quarter to date (QTD) can be defined as a time period that catches all important organization movement that happened between the start of the present quarter and the point at which the information was assembled.


Quarter to d ...

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Quick Ratio

The quick ratio is a pointer of an organization's transient liquidity position and measures an organization's capacity to meet its momentary commitments with its most liquid resources.


Since it shows the organization ...

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A rally can be defined as a time period of supported increments in the prices of securities or indices.


This kind of price movement can occur either during either a bear market or a bull market, when it is referred to as eit ...

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Rate of Return (RoR)

A rate of return (RoR) is the net addition or loss of an investment over a predefined time frame, shown as a level of the investment’s initial expense.


While computing the rate of return, you are determining the level ...

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Real Asset

Real assets can be described as physical assets that have a natural value because of their substance as well as properties.

Some real assets examples would be valuable metals, commodities, real estate, land, equipment, as well as natural r ...

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Real Estate

Real estate or land is property comprised of land and the structures built on it, also the natural assets of the land that include uncultivated vegetation, cultivated crops and animals, water, and any extra mineral deposits.



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Renko Chart

A chart that displays changes in price level without taking into consideration the time and volume. The changes are represented by a series of small black and white bricks. The white bricks are used when market price increases and black bricks when p ...

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A resume is an a couple of page formal document that work seekers submit to HRs and job recruiters as a method of separating their work experience, academic background, and special aptitudes.

Successful resumes tempt potential businesses t ...

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Retracement (Pullback)

Temporary corrective fall / rise in a market against prevailing trend or to unwind overbought (o/b) or oversold (o/s) situation. Less dramatic than reversal. ...

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Return on Investment (ROI)

Return on Investment or ROI can be defined as a performance measure utilized in order to assess the effectiveness of an investment or contrast with the effectiveness of various investments.

Return on Investment attempts to directly quantif ...

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Ripple can be defined as a technology that goes about as both a digital payment network for financial exchanges as well as a cryptocurrency.

It was first announced in the year 2012 and was founded by Jed McCaleb and Chris Larsen.

T ...

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Rising Triangle

Patterns traders look for this chart formation produced by a series of lows, each successively higher than the last, and a series of highs that are at approximately the same level. It is considered a bullish formation when volume increases on the a ...

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Risk/Reward Ratio

The risk/reward ratio shows the reward that can be earned by an investor, for each rupee they risk on an investment.

A lot of investors and analysts turn towards the risk/reward ratio to have a comparison between the expected returns of an ...

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Rounding Bottom

A chart pattern showing gradual base formation and the turn to an uptrend. A good long-term base formation. ...

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RSI (Relative Strength Indicator) is a momentum indicator, used to determine whether a market is overbought or oversold. It is quoted on a scale of 0?100, with readings over 80 usually seen as overbought and readings under 20 seen as oversold. Its c ...

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Runaway or measuring gap

A gap that forms in the direction of an existing trend. The gap is called a measuring gap as these are seen to form midway through the eventual extent of the trend. Sector Sum Proprietary indicator based on the sum of the scores of industry group bul ...

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sanku (three gaps) pattern

Japanese term that refers to a candlestick pattern with three individual gaps appearing, creating a defined trend. These gaps can and may occur throughout the different days of market trading and do not need to appear consecutively. The appearance of ...

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Traders in the futures and options market who hold their positions for a very short time. Their aim is to make frequent, small gains. ...

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Security is commonly used for any form of financial instruments but the definition varies from place to place. In some places security specifically excludes financial instruments other than equities and fixed income instruments. In some places, it in ...

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The thin lines above and below the real body of the candlestick line on Japanese candlestick charts. They represent the extremes of the session. The lower shadow is the line under the real body. The bottom of the lower shadow is the low of the sessi ...

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A shareholder can be defined as an individual, organization, or establishment possesses a minimum one share of an organization's security, which is referred to as equity.

Since shareholders are basically proprietors in an organization, ...

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Shareholder Equity

Shareholder equity (SE), also alluded to as stockholders' equity and shareholders' equity, can be defined as a company's owners' residual claim after obligations have been looked after.

Equity is equivalent to a company' ...

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shooting star

A bearish candlestick pattern with a long upper shadow, lit?tle or no lower shadow, and a small real body near the lows of the session that arises after an uptrend. ...

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Short Covering

The buying back of a security or asset previously sold so as to close out a short position. Also known as bear covering. This takes the prices higher. ...

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Short Squeeze

A short squeeze occurs when investors holding short positions find that the market has not fallen as they hoped but has risen just as they have to make good on their obligation to deliver securities or a physical commodity. The sudden increase in dem ...

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Short-term investment

Short-term investment is also known as temporary investment. It can be a debt or equity security which the investor can sell or convert into cash in a period of 3 to 12 months. Short-term investments are holds to earn quick returns. Two main requirem ...

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Silk Route

The Silk Route was a noteworthy exchange route that dated from the second century B.C. until the fourteenth century A.D. It extended from Asia to the Mediterranean, navigating China, India, Persia, Arabia, Greece, and Italy.

It was named t ...

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Slow Stochastic

An indicator used by stock traders to help them track changes in the momentum of an individual stock or of the market as a whole. This is helpful in identifying both the high and low points in a stock or in the market during specific time frames. The ...

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Sortino Ratio

A variation of the Sharpe ratio which differentiates harmful volatility from volatility in general by replacing standard deviation with downside deviation in the denominator. Thus the Sortino Ratio is calculated by subtracting the risk free rate from ...

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In the financial world, speculation, or speculative trading, can be defined as the act of leading a financial trade that has considerable risk of losing value but additionally holds the expectation of a critical gain or other significant value.


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Spinning Tops

Nickname for candle lines with small real bodies. And long upper and lower shadows. ...

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Spread Trading

The purchase of one futures contract and the simultaneous sale of another in order to take advantage of price discrepancies. ...

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Standard & Poor's (S&P)

Standard & Poor's (S&P) is a major index supplier as well as information source of autonomous credit ratings.

It is also the supplier of the mainstream S&P 500 Index and the S&P BSE Senesex. S&P was established in t ...

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A star is a small real body that gaps above or below a long candlestick occurring the previous day. ...

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An indicator with an upper and lower band around a simple moving average of an asset's price. The upper band value is the simple moving average plus the average true range while the lower band is the simple moving average minus the average true range ...

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Stochastic Oscillator

Stochastic Oscillator shows the location of the latest market close in relation to the high/low range over a set number of periods. Closing levels consistently near the top of the range indicate buying pressure and those near the bottom of the range ...

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A tool used in technical analysis to chart movements in the Relative Strength Indicator (RSI) for a stock. The stochRSI ranges from 0 to 1. A stochRSI below 0.2 means that the relative strength indicator has dropped significantly below its normal ran ...

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Stock Dividend

A stock dividend can be described as the distribution of reward from a part of the organization's income and is paid to a class of its investors.

Stock Dividends are determined and overseen by the board of directors of the company, how ...

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Stock valuation

Stock valuation is the process of calculating theoretical values of companies and their stocks. Stock valuation is generally used to predict future price movement of companies� shares and to make profit from these price movements. With the help of st ...

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Stocks or Share

Stock is a certificate of ownership in a company or corporation. It represents the claim on company’s assets and earnings. When you hold a company’s share you become the shareholder of that company. There are two types of stocks: • Common Stock ...

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Stop-Loss Order

A stop-loss order is a request placed with a broker to purchase or sell a stock when it arrives a specific price.

Stop-loss orders are intended to restrain an investor’s loss on a trade in a stock and are not the same as stop-limit o ...

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Swing Trading

Swing trading can be defined as a trading style that aims to catch profits in different kinds of securities over a period of a couple days to a few weeks.
Swing traders fundamentally utilize technical method of stock analysis to search for o ...

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Systematic Risk

Systematic risk is also known as non-diversifiable risk, un-diversifiable risk, market risk, or volatility. It is the part of total risk which is caused by factors that are beyond control. Systematic risk is caused by external factors and it affects ...

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Systemic Risk

Systemic risk is the possibility of an event at a company, entity, or group which can trigger a severe instability or can collapse the entire financial system, entire market, entire industry or economy. In the financial crisis of 2008 systemic ris ...

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Tangible Asset

A tangible asset can be defined as an asset that has a limited money value and generally a physical structure.

Tangible assets can generally always be exchanged for some monetary value however the liquidity of various markets will fluctuat ...

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Technical Analysis

A form of market analysis that studies demand and supply for securities and commodities based on trading volume and price studies. Using charts and modeling techniques, technicians attempt to identify price trends in a market. It is based on the bel ...

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Technical Analyst

A technical analyst, otherwise referred to as a market technician or chartist, is a stocks researcher or even a trader who examines and analyzes investments based on previous market prices as well as technical indicators.

Technicians accep ...

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Technical indicators

Technical indicators are also known as technicals. Technicals are the mathematical calculations which are based on historical trading data like price, volume, and open interest of a security rather than the fundamental of a business such as revenu ...

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Theta (Options Greek)

Theta is a sensitivity measure that determines the decline in this extrinsic value of the option over time.

To understand theta, we need to first know the difference between the intrinsic and extrinsic value of an option. Together, th ...

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Third World

Third World is an expression used to describe a class of economically inferior countries.

The concept of third world countries arose in the 1950s after the second world war and during the cold war between the Soviet Union and the United St ...

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The smallest movement possible in the market price of a security or financial instrument. ...

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Ticker Symbol

A ticker symbol is a positioning of characters mostly letters, sometimes numbers, that represent specific stocks listed on an exchange or traded publicly.

At the point when an organization issues stocks to the public, it chooses an availab ...

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Time Value

The component of an option premium, which takes into consideration the time to expiry and the volatility of the underlying instrument. ...

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Trade War

A trade war occurs when one nation fights against another nation by raising import duties or by putting different limitations on the opposing nation’s imports.

A tariff or a duty is a tax forced on the products brought into a country ...

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A trader can be defined as a person takes part in the purchasing and selling of financial securities in any financial market, either for his own sake or on behalf of another individual or foundation.

The fundamental distinction between a t ...

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Trend Analysis

Trend analysis can be defined as a procedure utilized in technical method of stock analysis that aims to anticipate the future changes is security price based on recently examined trend information.

Trend analysis depends on the concept th ...

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Trend Following

Taking position in the direction of the prevailing price movement.


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Trend Trading

Trend trading can be defined as a trading style that tries to catch increases through the analysis of an stock's momentum in a specific direction.

At the point when the price is moving towards one overall direction, like upwards or dow ...

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Technical analysis formation created by drawing a line connecting a series of descending tops, descending bottoms, ascending tops or ascending bottoms. Some technical analysts look for prices breaking through trendlines on the belief that those st ...

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Treynor Index

A measure of a portfolio's excess return per unit of risk, equal to the portfolio's rate of return minus the risk-free rate of return, divided by the portfolio's beta. This is a similar ratio to the Sharpe ratio, except that the portfolio's beta is c ...

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Ultra High Net Worth Individual (UHNWI)

Ultra high net worth individuals (UHNWI) can be defined as individuals with investable resources of at least $30 million, for the most part excluding personal assets and property, for example, a main living place, collectibles, as well as consumer ...

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Underlying Asset

Underlying asset are the economic assets from which a derivative’s price is derived.

An example of a derivatives would be Options.

A derivative can be defined as an economic instrument with a value that is derived from anothe ...

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Undervalued is a financial expression used to referr to a stock or any other kind of investment that being sold for a price assumed to be underneath the investment's actual intrinsic value.

An undervalued stock can be assessed by takin ...

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Unemployment happens when an individual who is effectively looking for a job is unable to find work. Unemployment is frequently utilized as a measure of economic health of a nation.

The most frequent measure of joblessness is the unemploym ...

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Unemployment Rate

The unemployment rate is the portion of the work power that is jobless, communicated as a rate. 

It is a slacking marker, implying that it for the most part rises or falls in the wake of changing monetary conditions, instead of forese ...

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Unrealized Gain

An unrealized gain can be described as a potential benefit that exists on paper, coming about because of an investment.

It is an expansion in the estimation of an asset that has yet to be traded for cash, for example, stock position that h ...

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The term Uptick is used to describe a rise in the price of a financial security since the preceding exchange.

An uptick happens when a stock’s price increases in in comparison to the last tick or the last trade.

An uptick is ...

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Uptick Rule

The Uptick Rule ( otherwise referred to as the "plus tick rule") is a rule set up by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) that necessitates short sales to be conducted at a higher price than the past exchange.

Investors t ...

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Value Added

The expression "value-added" portrays the improvement a organization provides its good or service before offering it to clients.

It tends to be considered as an additional special element included by an organization or maker to b ...

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Value at Risk (VaR)

Value at risk (VaR) can be defined as a statistic that evaluates and quantifies the degree of financial risk inside a company, portfolio or position over a particular period of time.

This measurement is most often utilized by investment an ...

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Value Investing

Value investing is an investment technique that includes picking securities that seem to be going for less than their intrinsic or book value.

Value investors a effectively uncover stocks they think the market is undervaluing.

They ...

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Value Stock

A value stock can be defined as a security that is being traded at a lower value relative to its fundamentals, for example, dividends, income, or sales, making it attractive to value investors.

A value stock is a stock trading at a lesser ...

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Verge XVG

Verge can be defined as an open source, decentralized digital currency that professes to offer totally anonymous transactions by muddling the location as well as the IP address of the transacting members using The Onion Router (TOR) as well as I2P ...

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Voice - over-Internet Protocol (VoIP)

Voice – over - Internet Protocol (VoIP) is communications innovation that enables clients to interface by sound through an Internet connection, instead of through a analog connection.

Voice - over - Internet Protocol changes over the ...

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The frequency and rate of change of an instrument. Often used as a theoretical measurement of risk. Volatility can be calculated statistically. Implied volatility is calculated by the market prices of options. ...

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Volume can be defined as the quantity of shares of a stock exchanged during a particular time frame.

Each exchange that happens between a purchaser and a seller of a stock adds to the total volume tally of that stock.

One exchange ...

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Volume Analysis

Volume analysis can be defined as the assessment of the quantity of equities or derivative contracts of a security that have been exchanged in a specific span of time.

Volume analysis is utilized by analysts using the technical method of s ...

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volume moving average

The type of indicator that can calculate and return the value of a simple moving average of volume over a certain time period.


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Volume weighted average price is a method of calculating the closing market price of a security. Most markets do not use the last traded price as the closing price as it is open to manipulation. Instead the closing price is set by calculating the ...

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Wall Street

Wall Street is a road situated in the lower Manhattan segment of New York City and houses the New York Stock Exchange or NYSE.

Wall Street has additionally been the historic headquarters of some of the biggest brokerages and investment ban ...

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A wallflower can be described as a security in which the investment society has lost enthusiasm, bringing about low trading volumes.

A wallflower often sits in a disliked industry division.

Because of the general disregard shown to ...

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Similar to the triangle but with both converging trendlines (making higher highs and higher lows for rising wedge), trending sharply in the same direction. It is a reversal pattern. Falling wedge make lower highs and lower lows.


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Welfare State

Welfare state alludes to a kind of overseeing in which the national government plays a key job in the security and advancement of the financial and social well-being of its residents.

A welfare state is depends on the ideas of fairness of ...

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White Candlestick

A white candlestick reflects a period where the stock’s price has closed at a higher price than where it had opened. It is a point on a stock’s candlestick chart reflecting a bullish sentiment.

White candlesticks reflect a posi ...

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Wilder's DMI (ADX)

Three lines compose the Directional Movement Indicators (DMI): ADX, DI+ and DI-. The Average Directional Index (ADX) line shows the strength of the trend. The higher the ADX value, the stronger the trend. The Plus Direction Indicator (DI+) and Min ...

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Win to Loss Ratio

The win to loss ratio can be defined as the proportion of the total number of winning trades to the number of losing trades. It does not consider what amount was won or lost, but basically if they were winners or losers.

The equation for W ...

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Wire Transfer

A wire transfer is an electronic exchange of assets over a system directed by many banks or move administration offices around the globe. The exchange can likewise be made in real cash money at a cash office. 

Wire transfers take into ...

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WM Reuters Benchmark Rates

WM Reuters Benchmark Rates can be defined as spot as well as forward foreign exchange rates that are utilized as benchmark rates for portfolio estimation as well as performance estimation.

The WM Reuters Benchmark Rates are received from S ...

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A writer can be defined as the seller of an option contract who creates a position to obtain a premium payment from the option purchaser.

Writers can sell call option contracts as well as put option contracts that are either covered or unc ...

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XD can be defined as a sign used to indicate that a stock is trading ex-dividend.

It is an alphabetic qualifier that is used as shorthand to inform investors key data about a particular stock in a stock statement.

Sometimes the exp ...

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Xenocurrency is a currency that can be exchanged in markets outside of its local borders.

For example xamples: Use of the Indian rupee in the United States or the Japanese yen deposited into a European bank.

The word ‘Xeno&rs ...

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Xetra can be defined as a completely electronic trading framework, situated in Frankfurt, Germany.

Started in year 1997 and managed by the Deutsche Börse, the Xetra stage provieds expanded flexibility for seeing order depth inside the ...

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XRT can be described as an augmentation printed after the ticker symbol for a security to show that the security is being traded on an ex-rights basis.

Ex-rights implies that the purchaser of the security does not own rights to buy more eq ...

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Y2K is the shorthand expression for "the year 2000" normally used to allude to a broad computer programming shortcut that was believed to result in extensive devastation as the year moved from 1999 to 2000.

Rather than permitting ...

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Yankee Bond

Yankee Bonds are issued by foreign entities (bank or company). These bonds are issued and traded in the United States and denominated in U.S. dollars. Yankee bonds are governed by the Securities Act of 1933. According to the Act, bonds have to be reg ...

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Year Over Year

Year Over Year or YOY is a commonly utilized economic tool for contrasting between two or more quantifiable events on an yearly premise.

Examining year over year performance enables for checking if an organization's financial performan ...

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Year to Date

Year to date (YTD) refers to the timeframe from the first day of the current calendar year or fiscal year up to the present date.

YTD data is helpful for analyzing business trends over time or contrasting performance information to contend ...

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Yellow Knight

Yellow knight is a company or corporation which is once planning a hostile takeover attempt on a company but instead decide to propose a merger deal to the target company. Means if you cannot beat a company then better to join it. There might have ...

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Yellow Sheets

Yellow sheets are the bulletins that contain information about the price of corporate bonds on over the counter (OTC) market. In yellow sheets, you can get the information about the bond's high, low, closing price, yield, bid price, and ask pr ...

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Yield can be defined as the earnings created on an investment over a specific time frame.

It's formatted as a rate, dependent on the invested sum, present day market worth, or face value of the stock.

It incorporates the intere ...

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Yield Advantage

The additional amount which an investor expects to earn by investing in a publicly traded company's convertible securities instead of its common stocks or can continue to earn instead of converting bonds into stocks is known as yield advantage ...

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Yield Burning

Yield burning was an illegal practice of underwriter marking up the price of bonds to reduce the yield on bonds. By this amount of tax is reduced which is incurred on fixed income investments. With yield burning major Wall Street U.S. municipal bo ...

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Yield Curve Risk

Yield curve risk is the probability of shifting yield curve in a manner that it affects the values of securities which are tied to interest rate, particularly bonds. When there is an adverse shift in market interest rate, the yield of fixed income ...

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Yield On Cost (YOC)

Yield on Cost (YOC) can be defined as a ratio of dividend yield determined by dividing a security's present dividend by the cost first paid for that security.

For instance, if an investor bought a security 5 years back for Rs. 1400, an ...

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Yield On Earning Assets

The yield on assets or YEA can be defined as a mainstream fiscal solvency ratio that analyzes a financial organization's interest earnings to its earning assets.

Yield On Earning Assets shows how well securities are performing by takin ...

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Yield To Call

Yield to call (YTC) can be defined as a financial expression that is used to refer to the return a bond owner gets if the security is held until the call date, which happens at some point prior to it reaching maturity.

Yield to call can be ...

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Yo Yo

Yo yo is slang used to describe an exceptionally unstable market.

The name is derived from the movements made by a toy referred to as a yo yo, where stock prices continually go up and down.

A yo yo market has no distinguishing char ...

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ZCash is a digital currency with a decentralized blockchain that gives secrecy to its clients and their exchanges. 

As a cryptocurrency, ZCash is similar to Bitcoin from multiple points of view including the open-source highlight, how ...

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Zero Cost Strategy

The expression zero cost strategy alludes to a trading or corporate choice that does not involve any cost to execute.

A zero cost strategy incurs zero expenses on a person or a business while at the same time improving, making processes in ...

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Zero Sum Game

Zero Sum is a circumstance in game theory in which an individual's benefit is equal to another individual's loss, so the net change in money or advantage is zero.

A zero sum game may have as few as 2 players, or a huge number of me ...

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Zero Uptick

Zero uptick can be defined as a trade executed at the same price as the trade just before it, but at a price higher than the trade preceding that.

For instance, if equities are purchased and sold at $58, trailed by $59 and $59, the last tr ...

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Zeta Model

The Zeta Model is a mathematical model that evaluates the odds of a public company failing and facing bankruptcy within a two-year timeframe.

The number delivered by the model is referred to as the Z-score of the company. The number is vie ...

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Zombie ETF

A zombie ETF alludes to exchange traded funds that are seeing less exchanging volume or expanded investment.

These funds are depicted as zombies since they aren't developing and are probably going to be cut by the issuer.

As it ...

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In the financial markets, zombies are organizations that acquire just enough money to keep  working and service debt, however  can't take care of their obligation.

Such organizations, provided that they just scratch by meetin ...

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Zone Of Resistance

Zone of resistance is a significant topic inside technical method of stock analysis.

Analysts that use the technical method of stock analysis, search for indications that a security price is moving through the zone of resistance as well as ...

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Zone of Support

Zone of support can be defined as a price zone reached when a stock's price has declined to an anticipated low, referred to as a support level.

The zone of resistance can be described as the upper range of a security's price, with ...

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A Z-score is a numerical estimation utilized in statistics of a value's relationship to the arithmetic mean of a group of values, calculated in terms of standard deviations from the arithmetic mean or average.

If a Z-score is 0, it sho ...

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Zero-volatility spread. A tool used in the analysis of an asset swap that uses the zero-coupon yield curve to calculate the spread. The Z-spread is the number of basis points that would have to be added to the spot yield curve so that the bond' ...

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