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Trading and Investment Terms


Sales Charge

The sales charge is a fee paid to purchase or sell a specific investment. 

It is expressed as a percentage of the amount invested. 

The term is most often used when discussing mutual funds.


A sales ...

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sanku (three gaps) pattern

Japanese term that refers to a candlestick pattern with three individual gaps appearing, creating a defined trend. These gaps can and may occur throughout the different days of market trading and do not need to appear consecutively. The appearance of ...

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Traders in the futures and options market who hold their positions for a very short time. Their aim is to make frequent, small gains. ...

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Sector Breakdown

Sectors commonly used for sector breakdown reporting include the following:

  1. A sector breakdown is the mix of sectors within a fund or portfolio, typically expressed as a portfolio percentage. Sector designations can vary depending o ...

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Security is commonly used for any form of financial instruments but the definition varies from place to place. In some places security specifically excludes financial instruments other than equities and fixed income instruments. In some places, it in ...

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The thin lines above and below the real body of the candlestick line on Japanese candlestick charts. They represent the extremes of the session. The lower shadow is the line under the real body. The bottom of the lower shadow is the low of the sessi ...

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Share Classes

A share class is a designation applied to a specified type of security such as common stock or mutual fund unit.

Class A

Class A mutual fund shares generally have front-end sales charges also known as a "load& ...

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A shareholder can be defined as an individual, organization, or establishment possesses a minimum one share of an organization's security, which is referred to as equity.

Since shareholders are basically proprietors in an organization, ...

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Shareholder Equity

Shareholder equity (SE), also alluded to as stockholders' equity and shareholders' equity, can be defined as a company's owners' residual claim after obligations have been looked after.

Equity is equivalent to a company' ...

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Sharpe Ratio

The Sharpe ratio has become the most widely used method for calculating the risk-adjusted return.

The Sharpe ratio was developed by Nobel laureate William F. 

Sharpe and is used to help investors understand the return of an in ...

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shooting star

A bearish candlestick pattern with a long upper shadow, lit?tle or no lower shadow, and a small real body near the lows of the session that arises after an uptrend. ...

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Short Covering

The buying back of a security or asset previously sold so as to close out a short position. Also known as bear covering. This takes the prices higher. ...

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Short Squeeze

A short squeeze occurs when investors holding short positions find that the market has not fallen as they hoped but has risen just as they have to make good on their obligation to deliver securities or a physical commodity. The sudden increase in dem ...

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Short term Investment

A short-term investment is also called a temporary investment or marketable security

It is a debt or equity security that is expected to be sold or converted into cash in the next 3 to 12 months.


Usually, these inves ...

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Short-term investment

Short-term investment is also known as temporary investment. It can be a debt or equity security which the investor can sell or convert into cash in a period of 3 to 12 months. Short-term investments are holds to earn quick returns. Two main requirem ...

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Silk Route

The Silk Route was a noteworthy exchange route that dated from the second century B.C. until the fourteenth century A.D. It extended from Asia to the Mediterranean, navigating China, India, Persia, Arabia, Greece, and Italy.

It was named t ...

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Slow Stochastic

An indicator used by stock traders to help them track changes in the momentum of an individual stock or of the market as a whole. This is helpful in identifying both the high and low points in a stock or in the market during specific time frames. The ...

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Small Cap

The “cap” in small-cap stocks refers to a company’s capitalization as determined by the total market value of its publicly traded shares.


Companies that have a market capitalization ranging less than Rs 500 ...

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Sortino Ratio

A variation of the Sharpe ratio which differentiates harmful volatility from volatility in general by replacing standard deviation with downside deviation in the denominator. Thus the Sortino Ratio is calculated by subtracting the risk free rate from ...

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In the financial world, speculation, or speculative trading, can be defined as the act of leading a financial trade that has considerable risk of losing value but additionally holds the expectation of a critical gain or other significant value.


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Spinning Tops

Nickname for candle lines with small real bodies. And long upper and lower shadows. ...

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Spread Trading

The purchase of one futures contract and the simultaneous sale of another in order to take advantage of price discrepancies. ...

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Standard & Poor's (S&P)

Standard & Poor's (S&P) is a major index supplier as well as information source of autonomous credit ratings.

It is also the supplier of the mainstream S&P 500 Index and the S&P BSE Senesex. S&P was established in t ...

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A star is a small real body that gaps above or below a long candlestick occurring the previous day. ...

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An indicator with an upper and lower band around a simple moving average of an asset's price. The upper band value is the simple moving average plus the average true range while the lower band is the simple moving average minus the average true range ...

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Stochastic Oscillator

Stochastic Oscillator shows the location of the latest market close in relation to the high/low range over a set number of periods. Closing levels consistently near the top of the range indicate buying pressure and those near the bottom of the range ...

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A tool used in technical analysis to chart movements in the Relative Strength Indicator (RSI) for a stock. The stochRSI ranges from 0 to 1. A stochRSI below 0.2 means that the relative strength indicator has dropped significantly below its normal ran ...

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A stock is a general term used to describe the ownership certificates of any company.

A stock is a security that represents the ownership of a fraction of a corporation.

Stocks are securities that represent an ownership share in a ...

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Stock Dividend

A stock dividend can be described as the distribution of reward from a part of the organization's income and is paid to a class of its investors.

Stock Dividends are determined and overseen by the board of directors of the company, how ...

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Stock valuation

Stock valuation is the process of calculating theoretical values of companies and their stocks. Stock valuation is generally used to predict future price movement of companies� shares and to make profit from these price movements. With the help of st ...

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Stockholder/ Shareholder

A person who owns shares in a company and therefore gets part of the company's profits and the right to vote on how the company is controlled


An individual, group, or organization that holds one or more shares in a compa ...

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A stock is a general term used to describe the ownership certificates of any company.

A stock is a security that represents the ownership of a fraction of a corporation.

Stocks are securities that represent an ownership share in a ...

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Stocks or Share

Stock is a certificate of ownership in a company or corporation.

It represents the claim on the company’s assets and earnings.


When you hold a company’s share you become the shareholder of that company. T ...

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Stop-Loss Order

A stop-loss order is a request placed with a broker to purchase or sell a stock when it arrives a specific price.

Stop-loss orders are intended to restrain an investor’s loss on a trade in a stock and are not the same as stop-limit o ...

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Swing Trading

Swing trading can be defined as a trading style that aims to catch profits in different kinds of securities over a period of a couple days to a few weeks.
Swing traders fundamentally utilize technical method of stock analysis to search for o ...

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Systematic Investment Plan

A systematic Investment Plan is an investment strategy wherein an investor needs to invest the same amount of money in a particular mutual fund at every stipulated period.


A Systematic Investment Plan (SIP), more popularly k ...

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Systematic Risk

Systematic risk is also known as non-diversifiable risk, un-diversifiable risk, market risk, or volatility. It is the part of total risk which is caused by factors that are beyond control. Systematic risk is caused by external factors and it affects ...

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Systemic Risk

Systemic risk is the possibility of an event at a company, entity, or group which can trigger a severe instability or can collapse the entire financial system, entire market, entire industry or economy. In the financial crisis of 2008 systemic ris ...

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